英语学习笔记 -- 语法

虚拟语气

1.现在不可能发生的事从句使用一般过去式,主句使用would+动词原形
If I were you, I would(wouldn’t(shouldn’t,could,might)) call my parents and tell them about our plan.
“Young man, if you ate more and talked less, we would both enjoy our dinner!”

2.与过去事实相反,从句用过去完成时 主句的格式为 would have done
If I had taken the cloctors advice , I would/could/should have got beeter

形容词变副词的一般规律

1.词尾直接加ly;
2.以le结尾,把e改成y,e.g. gentle -> gently;
3.以y结尾,变y为i,加ly。

时态

一般现在时

一般现在时被动

S + Vt +O
S1 + is/are + P.P + (by) + O1
My brother repairs the car regularly.
The car is repaired by my brother regularly.
The cars are repaired by my brother regularly.

现在进行时

概念:1.表示现在正在进行或发生的动作或事情:
   2.现阶段正在进行或发生,说话此刻动作不一定进行;
   3.可以表示将来(多用于移动性动词,并且后面要加将来的时间)。移动性的词:go/come/return/move
结构:肯定句: S +be(am,is,are) + v-ing
   否定句: S + not + V-ing
   一般疑问句:Be + S + V-ing?
   肯定回答:Yes,S + be 否定回答: No,S + be + not
   特殊疑问句:What + be + S + doing?
动词变花: V-ing
时间: now

现在进行时被动

S + be + Ving +O
S1 + is/are + Being + P.p + (by) O1
Thry are repairing the car.
The car is being repaired by them.

一般过去时

概念:动作发生在过去,且该动作已结束
例句:
   Last week,I went to the theatre.
标志词:
   the other day,just now, a few days ago ,at that moment

过去进行时

概念:1.过去某个时间段正在进行的动作.
   2.过去某个时刻正在进行的动作.
   3.和一般过去时连用,表示一个动作发生时,另一个动作正在进行.
结构:was / were + doing
例句:
   I was repairing my car at this time last week.

现在完成时

概念:表示过去发生的事对现在的影响,不管这个事情是一种经历,还是仅仅就是发生在过去,到现在为止了还是要继续下去,总之它要强调这个事情对现在的影响
结构:S + have/has + p.p + O
   S1 + have/has + been + p.p + (by) O1
   主语+助动词have/has+动词过去分词+宾语
标志词:just,already,recently,so far,yet,since,up to now
例句:
   He hase been there for … and he has already visited a great number of …
   He has just bought … and has gone to Alice Springs…

过去完成时

概念:过去的过去或两个动作都在过去,一个动作在前,一个在后,发生在前的动作为过去完成时.
用法:表示发生在过去某个时间之前的动作,即强调“过去的过去”。
关键点:必定涉及两个时间点,一个是过去,另一个是更远的过去;一前一后.
结构:had + 动词过去分词
标志词:after,as soon as , by the time,when
例句:
   When Sarah arrived at the party,Paul had already gone home.
   We had studied English for six years when we entered college.
   She had moade everything ready before I came.

将来进行时

概念:将来某一特定时刻正在做某事.Action happening at a particular time in the future.
结构:shall/will be doing.
例句:
   1.Don’t telephone me after nine tomorrow morning. I’ll be having a meeting.
   2.日常口语中,还未发生但已经计划好的事,表示一种预测. 现在惊醒时态,be doing 也可以用来表示计划好的事,二者区别不大.
    He will be talking a makeup test next week. He is taking a makeup test next week..
   3.特殊用法:疑问句中,表示”礼貌地客气地询问”,语气委婉.
    How will you be paying?

一般将来时 事情在将来发生

概念: 表示将要发声的动作或存在的状态,预测、计划、意愿。
结构:1.shall/will + 动词原形 (shall 第一人称的时候用)
   2.be going to do something 打算做某事 : be gonna do [美语 口语]
   3.be+to do sth 比较正式;(有时表示强烈的命令)
   4.be about to do sth. 即将发生的动作,正要,马上就要…
   5.will be doing 表示将要做某事
   6.be doing 表示将来时

例句:
   Close your eyes.I’m going to give you a surprise.
   I‘m going to be sick(because I feel terrible now).
   I‘ll be sick.我会生病的.(表示预测)
   The train is about to leave. 火车马上就要开动了.
   These tables are not to be taken orally. 该药禁止口服.
   I’m never gonna forget about you.(口语常用)
其他:
   go,come,arrive,leave ,die,land,join跟go/com/leave/arrive 相连的词一定会用进行时态表示将来时态.

一般将来时被动

S + shall/will + V + O
S1 + will + be + p.p + (by) O1
The policeman will catch the thieves soon.
The thieves will be caught by the policeman soon.

感叹句

结构:what +a、an + (adj.) n.

What a preety girl!

双宾语

直接宾语(表示动作结果)和间接宾语(表示动作目标)
lent sb. sth : He lent me a book.
sb. 间接宾语
sth. 直接宾语.

一般情况下,间接宾语在前,直接宾语在后。间接宾语在后面时,前面必须加to(对某人针对某人做)或for(为某人做)
He did a big favour for me
take flowers tomy wife
可以翻译为”给”,”替”,”为”的,就用for;如果只能翻译为”给”,就用to

冠词

the

1.用于特指的人或物前 e.g. The watch is mine.
2.用于重新提到的人或物前 Yesterday => a beggar knocked at … In return for this, the beggar stood on …
3.the + 世界上独一无二的事物前
4.最高级以及序数词前面一定要加the => the most beautiful girl , the first day
5.the + 形容词: 一类人/事物 => the poor /the rich 穷人/富人(一类群体) + 动词复数 => The Simpsons are very friendly.
6.the + 江,河,湖,海,岛,峡,湾 => the Yellow River 黄河
7.the + 乐器 => play the piano 弹钢琴
8.谈话双方都知道的 => pass me the book 双方都知道要的是哪本书

a/an

a/an + 可数名词的单数,表示确定的数量,一个
a/an 用于第一次出现的人或物前。 => I have a dog. The dog’s name is Mark.

句型

Sb. has nerver done sth. before, so he/she is finding sth. very exciting.
I have nerver had the online course before, so I’m finding this experience very interesting.

以逗号隔开的两个句子,必须用连接词进行连接
but Mr.Scott cannot get …, so he has just bought…
not that the machine is out of order, but that I have not learned to operate it . 不是机器出了故障,而是我没学会操作。
but 表示一个转折的意义 so表示结果

名词所有格

1.单数名词的所有格,在词尾加’s
The actress’s boyfriend,a woman’s intuition
2.复数名词的所有格,两种情况:
a.不以-s或-es结尾的特殊变化的复数名词,在词尾加’s
e.g. The Children’s Day
b.以-s结尾的复数名词,在词尾加所有格符号’即可,
e.g. her friends’ pictures
3.符合名词,在最后一个词的词尾加’s
e.g. my father-in-law’s company
4.并列名词,由and连接,表示共有,只需在最后名词的词尾加’s,表示各自拥有,则各自加.
e.g. Rachel and Monica’s department
Rachel’s and Monica’s departments

从句

条件从句

主句 + if + 从句
如果
一 if (从句) 主句
真实条件句;假设很有可能发声, if it is snows
只要是状语从句,一律用一般现在取代将来.
如果在条件从句中,从句往往一般现在时,主句仍然为一般将来时
真实条件句中,从句往往为现在时,主句中会用一般将来时或祈使句.
I won’t go to work if it rains tomorrow.如果明天下雨,我将不去上班.
If he is sleeping,don’t wake him up.
二 without+n 如果没有
without water,fish cannot live.

比较级

1.一般直接在词尾加er/est

2.词尾变化时注意特殊情况:

以一个辅音字母结尾的单音节词,双写该字母再加er/est以辅音字母加y结尾的,变y为ier/est
多数双音节词和多音节词,在形容词或副词前加more/most

一些不规则的变化需要另外记忆:

good / well - better,best
bad / badly - worse,worst
far - farther /further

3.如果要把比较的两个项目都提到,要在比较级后加than

4.比较级的特殊用途:

双重比较,表示持续不断的变化,越来越…
Your English is getting better and better.
It’s becoming more and more difficult to find a job.

越…就越…:the+比较级,the+比较级
The younger you are, the easier it is to learn.

as … as …: 表比较
…is not as large as Bill Frith’s.
Bill Frith’s garden is larger than Joe’s.

not as … as …
Jenny didn’t do as well in the exam as she had hoped.
She had hoped to do better.

句型演练

1.Jack is younger than he looks.
Jack isn’t as old as he looks.
2.I didn’t spend as much money as you.
You spent more money than me.
3.Tom is the same age as George.

动名词

动词+ing,构成doing

意义上相当于名词,也保留动词的特征,有宾语、时态及语态的变化。

动名词的用法:

1.作主语
Talking mends no holes. 动名词做主语的时候谓词要用单数
Painting is his hobby.

2.作表语
His hobby is painting.
一般表示比较抽象的习惯性动作

3.做宾语
The rain prvented us from going out 因为下雨我们没能出去
When I heard his voice,I couldn’t help thinking of my father.

可以作介词的宾语 without,before,after…
也可以作动词的宾语

a.一些后跟动名词作宾语的词:
avoid,imagine,mind,enjoy,keep,can’t help doing, finish…

b.跟在某些固定词组后作宾语:
be used to : 习惯于
be proud of :为…自豪
be good at : 擅长
be interested in : 对…感兴趣
keep .. from :避免
inist on :坚持
set about: 动作去做

c.动名词和不定时都可以做宾语,但意义大不相同

remember,forget,regret
以上三个单词加ing表示动作已经发生
而加 to do表示动作尚未发生
I remember giving the book to him .我记得我把书给他了.
I remember to give the book to him. 我会记得把这本书交给他的.
forget to do something 忘记要做某事;
forget doing something 忘记曾经做过某事

try:
Try doing it in another way. (doing 尝试)
Try to do it well.(to do 尽力做)

Mean:
Catching the first bus means getting up early (doing 意味着)
I mean to get up early (to do 企图,打算做)

go on:
We went on talking about the show(doing 继续做某事)
We went on to talk about the show (to do 继续做另一件事)

stop:
Stop talking! (doing 停止做某事)
Stop to talk! (to do 停下来去做某事)

学以致用

1.She bought a pair of boots. She did not get a pair of shoes.
Instead of getting a pair of shoes,she bought a pair of boots.

2.He went out of the restaurant. He did not pay the bill.
He went out of the restaurant without paying the bill.

3.She heard the news. She fainted.
After hearing the news, she fainted.