英语学习笔记 -- 语法

虚拟语气

1.现在不可能发生的事从句使用一般过去式,主句使用would+动词原形
If I were you, I would(wouldn’t(shouldn’t,could,might)) call my parents and tell them about our plan.
“Young man, if you ate more and talked less, we would both enjoy our dinner!”

2.与过去事实相反,从句用过去完成时 主句的格式为 would have done
If I had taken the cloctors advice , I would/could/should have got beeter

形容词变副词的一般规律

1.词尾直接加ly;
2.以le结尾,把e改成y,e.g. gentle -> gently;
3.以y结尾,变y为i,加ly。

时态

现在进行时

概念:1.表示现在正在进行或发生的动作或事情:
   2.现阶段正在进行或发生,说话此刻动作不一定进行;
   3.可以表示将来(多用于移动性动词,并且后面要加将来的时间)。移动性的词:go/come/return/move
结构:肯定句: S +be(am,is,are) + v-ing
   否定句: S + not + V-ing
   一般疑问句:Be + S + V-ing?
   肯定回答:Yes,S + be 否定回答: No,S + be + not
   特殊疑问句:What + be + S + doing?
动词变花: V-ing
时间: now

一般过去时

概念:动作发生在过去,已经完成
例句:
   Last week,I went to the theatre.
标志词:
   the other day,just now, a few days ago ,at that moment

过去进行时

概念:1.过去某个时间段正在进行的动作.
   2.过去某个时刻正在进行的动作.
   3.和一般过去时连用,表示一个动作发生时,另一个动作正在进行.
结构:was / were + doing
例句:
   I was repairing my car at this time last week.

现在完成时

概念:表示过去发生的事对现在的影响,不管这个事情是一种经历,还是仅仅就是发生在过去,到现在为止了还是要继续下去,总之它要强调这个事情对现在的影响
结构:S + have/has + p.p + O
   S1 + have/has + been + p.p + (by) O1
   主语+助动词have/has+动词过去分词+宾语
标志词:just,already,recently,so far,yet,since,up to now
例句:
   He hase been there for … and he has already visited a great number of …
   He has just bought … and has gone to Alice Springs…

过去完成时

概念:过去的过去或两个动作都在过去,一个动作在前,一个在后,发生在前的动作为过去完成时.过去完成时一定要以一个过去时态做铺垫.这个动作一定要发生在had done之后
用法:表示发生在过去某个时间之前的动作,即强调“过去的过去”。
结构:had + 动词过去分词
例句:
   When Sarah arrived at the party,Paul had already gone home.

感叹句

结构:what +a、an + (adj.) n.

What a preety girl!

双宾语

直接宾语(表示动作结果)和间接宾语(表示动作目标)
lent sb. sth : He lent me a book.
sb. 间接宾语
sth. 直接宾语.

一般情况下,间接宾语在前,直接宾语在后。间接宾语在后面时,前面必须加to(对某人针对某人做)或for(为某人做)
He did a big favour for me
take flowers tomy wife
可以翻译为”给”,”替”,”为”的,就用for;如果只能翻译为”给”,就用to

冠词

the

1.用于特指的人或物前 e.g. The watch is mine.
2.用于重新提到的人或物前 Yesterday => a beggar knocked at … In return for this, the beggar stood on …
3.the + 世界上独一无二的事物前
4.最高级以及序数词前面一定要加the => the most beautiful girl , the first day
5.the + 形容词: 一类人/事物 => the poor /the rich 穷人/富人(一类群体) + 动词复数 => The Simpsons are very friendly.
6.the + 江,河,湖,海,岛,峡,湾 => the Yellow River 黄河
7.the + 乐器 => play the piano 弹钢琴
8.谈话双方都知道的 => pass me the book 双方都知道要的是哪本书

a/an

a/an + 可数名词的单数,表示确定的数量,一个
a/an 用于第一次出现的人或物前。 => I have a dog. The dog’s name is Mark.

句型

Sb. has nerver done sth. before, so he/she is finding sth. very exciting.
I have nerver had the online course before, so I’m finding this experience very interesting.

以逗号隔开的两个句子,必须用连接词进行连接
but Mr.Scott cannot get …, so he has just bought…
not that the machine is out of order, but that I have not learned to operate it . 不是机器出了故障,而是我没学会操作。
but 表示一个转折的意义 so表示结果

比较级

1.一般直接在词尾加er/est

2.词尾变化时注意特殊情况:

以一个辅音字母结尾的单音节词,双写该字母再加er/est以辅音字母加y结尾的,变y为ier/est
多数双音节词和多音节词,在形容词或副词前加more/most

一些不规则的变化需要另外记忆:

good / well - better,best
bad / badly - worse,worst
far - farther /further

3.如果要把比较的两个项目都提到,要在比较级后加than

4.比较级的特殊用途:

双重比较,表示持续不断的变化,越来越…
Your English is getting better and better.
It’s becoming more and more difficult to find a job.

越…就越…:the+比较级,the+比较级
The younger you are, the easier it is to learn.

as … as …: 表比较
…is not as large as Bill Frith’s.
Bill Frith’s garden is larger than Joe’s.

not as … as …
Jenny didn’t do as well in the exam as she had hoped.
She had hoped to do better.

句型演练

1.Jack is younger than he looks.
Jack isn’t as old as he looks.
2.I didn’t spend as much money as you.
You spent more money than me.
3.Tom is the same age as George.

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